S3E12: The Apocalyptic Moses and Mount Sinai

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In this episode we discuss how Second Temple Jews understood Moses and Mount Sinai. The giving of the Torah accompanied by angels, the revelation of the age to come, and the projection of Sinai eschatologically are all presumed by Jews at the time.  These ideas, for example, are reflected in the account of the Mount of Transfiguration and in encounters with angels throughout the New Testament.

Show notes

  • Moses and Mount Sinai: The involvement of angels – Jubilees 2:1; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; Acts 7:53; Deuteronomy 33:2; 4Q377.2.11 (1:20)
  • Angels revealing the New Jerusalem and Israel’s eschatological future – 2 Baruch 4:4-6 cf. Exodus 25; 2 Baruch 59:1-12 (9:22)
  • How should we understand second temple authors “reading into” these details about Moses and Sinai? (14:34)
  • Projecting Sinai eschatologically: fire and angels on the day of judgment – 1 Enoch 1:3-9 (21:12)
  • Sinai becomes the central revelation of the Day of God/Messianic theophany – Jubilees 4:26; 2 Peter 1 (24:19)

Resource: From Sinai to Zion by Joel Richardson: https://joelstrumpet.com/?page_id=5755