In this episode we continue our interview with David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of the eschatological themes found in the Psalms and how these play out in the prophetic literature. We also look at the themes of the Psalms in apocalyptic literature, which give context to the New Testament’s quotations of the Psalms, especially Psalm 110.
- The central eschatological themes found in the Psalter (2:18)
- How do you see the Psalter’s effect on the late prophetic material or on the prophetic material in general? (7:59)
- How do you see these ideas projecting forward into 2nd temple/apocalyptic literature?
In this episode we interview David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of his work on the Psalms from his book The Message of the Psalter: An Eschatological Programme in the Book of Psalms. David discusses the primary theme of his book with us – namely, that the Psalms have been organized in a way that is intended to convey an eschatological narrative. David shares some of the other theories behind the organization of the Psalms, and then shares a few examples to help illustrate how both the content and the redaction of the Psalms were intended to heighten eschatological expectation. … Read more
In this episode we begin our discussion of the Ketuvim with the Wisdom tradition in the Tanakh. Along with the prophetic tradition, the wisdom tradition played a key role in the development of Jewish apocalypticism. Today we survey the Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, highlighting how they are incorporated into later apocalyptic themes such as the delineation of the righteous and the wicked at the final judgment, the resurrection of the dead, and messianic hope.
- What is the Wisdom tradition? (2:52)
- What does Wisdom literature have to do with Jewish apocalyptic? (8:18)
- The Psalms – Psalm 1; 2; 78; Targum Psalms 18:29; 27:13; Wisdom of Solomon 3, 5 (15:31)
- Proverbs – Proverbs 1:20-33; Daniel 1:17; Daniel 2:20-22, 31-45; 4 Ezra 4 (28:11)
- Job – Job 19; Job 42; Job 14:14 (LXX); Job 42:17 (LXX); James 5:11 (42:20)
** We had a little trouble with our recording this week.… Read more
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this eighth Q&A episode. Topics include the relationship of apocalypticism to pacifism and fatalism, Messianic Judaism, and the importance of historical studies. Also, don’t miss our rapid fire round (which, as usual, is not so rapid).
- Can you comment on what “salt and light” and “city on a hill” meant for a first-century Jew? (2:10)
- How do historical studies fit into the larger trajectory of theological development? (9:12)
- Why do some scholars believe there were different versions of “Christian Judaism” in the first century? (18:06)
- Is there time in the age to come?
In this episode we finish our discussion of the Minor Prophets with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. We discuss the various themes found in each book and the role that these post-exilic prophets play in the development of apocalyptic thought. Generally written around the building of the second temple, the authors consistently use apocalyptic scenarios to motivate Israel’s covenant faithfulness in the stewardship of their election.
- The return from exile played no small role in the “apocalypticization” of exile/repentance/return themes (2:02)
- Haggai: Neglecting the temple, the covenantal blessings and curses, and Zerubbabel – Haggai 1:10-11; Deuteronomy 28:22-40; Haggai 2:1-9; Deuteronomy 30; Haggai 2:6-9; Hebrews 12:28-29 (5:55)
- Zechariah: Covenant maintenance “apocalpyticized” through visions and oracles – Zechariah 1:1-6; 4:8; 6:11-13; 7:8-14; 8:2-3; 9:10; 12-14 (17:27)
- Zechariah quoted in the New Testament – Zechariah 9:9; Revelation (29:24)
- Malachi: the fame of the Lord among the nations, disillusionment, and the coming judgment – Malachi 1:11; 2:17; 4:1; 1 Corinthians 3; Matthew 3 (37:22)
In this episode we discuss the minor prophetic books of Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. As we’ve seen already in the other prophetic books from Isaiah to Amos, the themes of covenant discipline in light of eschatological hope are highlighted repeatedly throughout. Each book has its own particular emphasis and angle, but the covenantal cycle from Deuteronomy 28-30 is always presumed, and this cycle is pushed to its ultimate end by later apocalyptic writers and the authors of the New Testament.
- Obadiah – Obadiah 15-18; Zechariah 12-14 (3:57)
- Jonah – Jonah 4:1-3; Matthew 12:38-41; Acts 10 (12:08)
- Micah – Micah 3:5-8; Micah 6:1-2; Micah 4:1-5; Micah 5:2-4; Micah 7:18-20 (24:58)
- Nahum – Nahum 1:7-8, 15; Nahum 3:19; Tobit 14:3-4 (34:29)
- Habakkuk – Habakkuk 2:2-4; Hebrews 8; Habakkuk 3:11-13 (41:12)
- Zephaniah – Isaiah 13; 2 Maccabees 6:13-16; Zephaniah 3:19-20 (52:10)
In this episode we begin our discussion of the Minor Prophets with the books of Hosea, Joel, and Amos. As with the other written prophets, “the Book of the Twelve” highlights the themes of covenantal maintenance, eschatological distress, and ultimate restoration for Israel. Hosea’s marriage imagery, Joel’s emphasis on the day of the Lord, and Amos’ concern for injustices are all framed within the common covenantal narrative.
- Intro to the Minor Prophets and Israel’s covenant dynamic – Amos 4; Deuteronomy 28; 1 Enoch 89:51-53; 2 Baruch 62 (2:35)
- Hosea: idolatry and the marriage metaphor – Hosea 3; Ezekiel 20; Jeremiah 30-32; 4Q434; Hosea 6:4-11 (11:21)
- Joel: the covenantal dynamic in an apocalyptic context – Joel 2:30-3:2 (23:24)
- Amos: idolatry, hypocrisy, and injustice – Amos 7:10-17; Amos 5:18-20; Amos 9:8-11 (37:37)
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this seventh Q&A episode. Topics include Gentiles and the Torah, scholars like Albert Schweitzer and C.H. Dodd, John 3 and Ezekiel 36, and God’s promises. We also give some practical advice about how to relate to others who see the Gospel differently.
- What is the purpose of the Law for ancient Jews and according to the New Testament? (2:24)
- What are your thoughts on Albert Schweitzer? (14:04)
- Can you discuss more of the connection between John 3 and Ezekiel 36 more? (21:14)
- How does the Jewish apocalyptic framework for the Gospel frame the cross?
In this episode we discuss the book of Ezekiel and its later interpretation in apocalyptic literature and the New Testament. Just as with the other written prophets, Ezekiel continues the theme of covenantal maintenance, using Israel’s history as a mechanism to describe their future eschatological exile and redemption. Several features in Ezekiel become important to the later apocalyptic writers, including heavenly visions, eschatological imagery, and the way in which these serve to communicate the certainty of God’s covenantal promises.
- A brief overview of Ezekiel (1:32)
- The centrality of the covenantal dynamic – Ezekiel 1:1-2; Tg. Ezek.
In this episode we discuss the book of Jeremiah and the playing out of the covenantal cycle as developed in Deuteronomy. Various passages illustrate this cycle, but chapter 25 particularly sets the pattern of covenantal determinism which is developed in the apocalyptic literature. A unique example of the forward projection of Jeremiah’s covenantal cycle is also seen in the Baruch tradition.
- Brief overview of Jeremiah (3:18)
- Covenantal maintenance in Jeremiah – Jeremiah 2:1-3, 23-24, 26-27; 3:12-18; Jeremiah 16:9-15; Jeremiah 23:1-8; Jeremiah 30:1-18 (5:18)
- Covenantal determinism in Jeremiah and Jewish apocalyptic literature – Jeremiah 25:11-13; 4 Ezra 12-13 (19:46)
- Chronology and numerology in context to the covenant (25:43)
- The New Covenant – Jeremiah 31:31-34; Deuteronomy 30:1-6; 1 Baruch 2:31-35 (32:04)
- The apocalypticizing of Jeremiah – 2 Baruch 10:2-5 (39:01)