Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this ninth Q&A episode. We discuss revival, the Trinity, and different hermeneutical tools that Christians have used over the centuries. We also explore how Paul uses the Hebrew Bible, and conclude with some thoughts on some common critiques on the historicity of the Tanakh.
- Does Matthew 24:14 describe an end-time revival or awakening? (2:13)
- What do you think about common medieval exegesis methods and how they relate to a first-century apocalyptic worldview? (5:03)
- Is Paul’s quote of Psalm 68 in Ephesians 4 proof of realized eschatology? (15:30)
- What are your thoughts on the Trinity from a first-century viewpoint?
In this final episode of the season, we discuss Ezra-Nehemiah, and 1-2 Chronicles and their later interpretation in second-temple apocalyptic literature. Being traditionally understood as the head of the Great Sanhedrin, Ezra in particular is transformed into an apocalyptic prophet proclaiming the urgency of the end of the age. The Chronicles largely summarize earlier content of 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings with an emphasis on messianism, which plays into eschatological expectations in the second-temple period.
- Overview of Ezra-Nehemiah (2:11)
- The confusion around Ezra in Second Temple Literature – 4 Ezra/2 Esdras (7:33)
- Ezra as an end-time prophet – Ezra 7:1,6; 4 Ezra 1:1; Ezra 3:10-13; Haggai 2:3; 2 Esdras 4 Ezra 3:28–36; 7:74; 14:3-18 (12:23)
- The apocalyptic material, propaganda, and discipleship (23:21)
- Overview of Chronicles (27:37)
- Messianism in 1 and 2 Chronicles – Psalms of Solomon 17 (31:35)
- Wrapping up our season on the Tanakh (38:17)
In this episode, we discuss the book of Daniel and its influence on later Jewish apocalyptic literature and the New Testament. We highlight particular themes common to the apocalyptic worldview, including the kingdom of God, the son of Man, and the eschatological persecution of the saints. Daniel is best understood and read through the lens of God’s covenantal faithfulness to Israel and its projection forward in an apocalyptic view of history.
- Introduction to Daniel (3:04)
- Why is Daniel in the Ketuvim instead of the Nevi’im? (4:07)
- Dating the book of Daniel – Ezekiel 14:12-14; Ezekiel 14:19-20; Ezekiel 28:1-3 (7:52)
- Daniel as apocalyptic literature (14:47)
- Daniel, the covenant, and the apocalyptic view of history (16:14)
- The aim of history is the apocalyptic kingdom of God – Daniel 9 (17:24)
- Daniel in second temple apocalyptic literature – Syb.
In this episode, we discuss the Five Scrolls: Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. Though seemingly disparate in content, authorship, chronology, and genre, Jewish tradition groups these five books within the Ketuvim. We discuss some of the reasons why, and how later tradition reads these books messianically and eschatologically.
- The Five Scrolls and the Targums (2:43)
- Song of Solomon – Ezekiel 16:7-8; Isaiah 62:5; Hosea 1-2; Targum Canticles 8:4-8 (12:16)
- Ruth – Targum Ruth 1:1; 2:12; 4:22 (31:22)
- Lamentations – Targum Lamentations 1:1; 2:22; 4:22 (38:18)
- Ecclesiastes – Targum Qohelet 1:2; 12:13-14; 1 Enoch 102:6-103:4 (43:17)
- Esther – Targum Esther 1:1 (50:50)
Resource: Targum and Testament Revisited by Martin McNamara – https://amzn.to/3L6DGB4
In this episode we continue our interview with David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of the eschatological themes found in the Psalms and how these play out in the prophetic literature. We also look at the themes of the Psalms in apocalyptic literature, which give context to the New Testament’s quotations of the Psalms, especially Psalm 110.
- The central eschatological themes found in the Psalter (2:18)
- How do you see the Psalter’s effect on the late prophetic material or on the prophetic material in general? (7:59)
- How do you see these ideas projecting forward into 2nd temple/apocalyptic literature?
In this episode we interview David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of his work on the Psalms from his book The Message of the Psalter: An Eschatological Programme in the Book of Psalms. David discusses the primary theme of his book with us – namely, that the Psalms have been organized in a way that is intended to convey an eschatological narrative. David shares some of the other theories behind the organization of the Psalms, and then shares a few examples to help illustrate how both the content and the redaction of the Psalms were intended to heighten eschatological expectation. … Read more
In this episode we begin our discussion of the Ketuvim with the Wisdom tradition in the Tanakh. Along with the prophetic tradition, the wisdom tradition played a key role in the development of Jewish apocalypticism. Today we survey the Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, highlighting how they are incorporated into later apocalyptic themes such as the delineation of the righteous and the wicked at the final judgment, the resurrection of the dead, and messianic hope.
- What is the Wisdom tradition? (2:52)
- What does Wisdom literature have to do with Jewish apocalyptic? (8:18)
- The Psalms – Psalm 1; 2; 78; Targum Psalms 18:29; 27:13; Wisdom of Solomon 3, 5 (15:31)
- Proverbs – Proverbs 1:20-33; Daniel 1:17; Daniel 2:20-22, 31-45; 4 Ezra 4 (28:11)
- Job – Job 19; Job 42; Job 14:14 (LXX); Job 42:17 (LXX); James 5:11 (42:20)
** We had a little trouble with our recording this week.… Read more
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this eighth Q&A episode. Topics include the relationship of apocalypticism to pacifism and fatalism, Messianic Judaism, and the importance of historical studies. Also, don’t miss our rapid fire round (which, as usual, is not so rapid).
- Can you comment on what “salt and light” and “city on a hill” meant for a first-century Jew? (2:10)
- How do historical studies fit into the larger trajectory of theological development? (9:12)
- Why do some scholars believe there were different versions of “Christian Judaism” in the first century? (18:06)
- Is there time in the age to come?
In this episode we finish our discussion of the Minor Prophets with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. We discuss the various themes found in each book and the role that these post-exilic prophets play in the development of apocalyptic thought. Generally written around the building of the second temple, the authors consistently use apocalyptic scenarios to motivate Israel’s covenant faithfulness in the stewardship of their election.
- The return from exile played no small role in the “apocalypticization” of exile/repentance/return themes (2:02)
- Haggai: Neglecting the temple, the covenantal blessings and curses, and Zerubbabel – Haggai 1:10-11; Deuteronomy 28:22-40; Haggai 2:1-9; Deuteronomy 30; Haggai 2:6-9; Hebrews 12:28-29 (5:55)
- Zechariah: Covenant maintenance “apocalpyticized” through visions and oracles – Zechariah 1:1-6; 4:8; 6:11-13; 7:8-14; 8:2-3; 9:10; 12-14 (17:27)
- Zechariah quoted in the New Testament – Zechariah 9:9; Revelation (29:24)
- Malachi: the fame of the Lord among the nations, disillusionment, and the coming judgment – Malachi 1:11; 2:17; 4:1; 1 Corinthians 3; Matthew 3 (37:22)
In this episode we discuss the minor prophetic books of Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. As we’ve seen already in the other prophetic books from Isaiah to Amos, the themes of covenant discipline in light of eschatological hope are highlighted repeatedly throughout. Each book has its own particular emphasis and angle, but the covenantal cycle from Deuteronomy 28-30 is always presumed, and this cycle is pushed to its ultimate end by later apocalyptic writers and the authors of the New Testament.
- Obadiah – Obadiah 15-18; Zechariah 12-14 (3:57)
- Jonah – Jonah 4:1-3; Matthew 12:38-41; Acts 10 (12:08)
- Micah – Micah 3:5-8; Micah 6:1-2; Micah 4:1-5; Micah 5:2-4; Micah 7:18-20 (24:58)
- Nahum – Nahum 1:7-8, 15; Nahum 3:19; Tobit 14:3-4 (34:29)
- Habakkuk – Habakkuk 2:2-4; Hebrews 8; Habakkuk 3:11-13 (41:12)
- Zephaniah – Isaiah 13; 2 Maccabees 6:13-16; Zephaniah 3:19-20 (52:10)