In this episode we begin our discussion of the Minor Prophets with the books of Hosea, Joel, and Amos. As with the other written prophets, “the Book of the Twelve” highlights the themes of covenantal maintenance, eschatological distress, and ultimate restoration for Israel. Hosea’s marriage imagery, Joel’s emphasis on the day of the Lord, and Amos’ concern for injustices are all framed within the common covenantal narrative.
- Intro to the Minor Prophets and Israel’s covenant dynamic – Amos 4; Deuteronomy 28; 1 Enoch 89:51-53; 2 Baruch 62 (2:35)
- Hosea: idolatry and the marriage metaphor – Hosea 3; Ezekiel 20; Jeremiah 30-32; 4Q434; Hosea 6:4-11 (11:21)
- Joel: the covenantal dynamic in an apocalyptic context – Joel 2:30-3:2 (23:24)
- Amos: idolatry, hypocrisy, and injustice – Amos 7:10-17; Amos 5:18-20; Amos 9:8-11 (37:37)
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this seventh Q&A episode. Topics include Gentiles and the Torah, scholars like Albert Schweitzer and C.H. Dodd, John 3 and Ezekiel 36, and God’s promises. We also give some practical advice about how to relate to others who see the Gospel differently.
- What is the purpose of the Law for ancient Jews and according to the New Testament? (2:24)
- What are your thoughts on Albert Schweitzer? (14:04)
- Can you discuss more of the connection between John 3 and Ezekiel 36 more? (21:14)
- How does the Jewish apocalyptic framework for the Gospel frame the cross?
In this episode we discuss the book of Ezekiel and its later interpretation in apocalyptic literature and the New Testament. Just as with the other written prophets, Ezekiel continues the theme of covenantal maintenance, using Israel’s history as a mechanism to describe their future eschatological exile and redemption. Several features in Ezekiel become important to the later apocalyptic writers, including heavenly visions, eschatological imagery, and the way in which these serve to communicate the certainty of God’s covenantal promises.
- A brief overview of Ezekiel (1:32)
- The centrality of the covenantal dynamic – Ezekiel 1:1-2; Tg. Ezek.
In this episode we discuss the book of Jeremiah and the playing out of the covenantal cycle as developed in Deuteronomy. Various passages illustrate this cycle, but chapter 25 particularly sets the pattern of covenantal determinism which is developed in the apocalyptic literature. A unique example of the forward projection of Jeremiah’s covenantal cycle is also seen in the Baruch tradition.
- Brief overview of Jeremiah (3:18)
- Covenantal maintenance in Jeremiah – Jeremiah 2:1-3, 23-24, 26-27; 3:12-18; Jeremiah 16:9-15; Jeremiah 23:1-8; Jeremiah 30:1-18 (5:18)
- Covenantal determinism in Jeremiah and Jewish apocalyptic literature – Jeremiah 25:11-13; 4 Ezra 12-13 (19:46)
- Chronology and numerology in context to the covenant (25:43)
- The New Covenant – Jeremiah 31:31-34; Deuteronomy 30:1-6; 1 Baruch 2:31-35 (32:04)
- The apocalypticizing of Jeremiah – 2 Baruch 10:2-5 (39:01)
In this episode we discuss messianism in the book of Isaiah. In light of the day of the Lord and the coming restoration of creation, Isaiah portrays the Messiah as the head of Israel, who will redeem Israel and glorify Jerusalem. The Messiah functions as a servant of Israel who heals the nation and leads her to her glorious destiny. As Paul would put it, “I tell you that Messiah became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs” (Romans 15:8).
- What is messianism? (2:25)
- Messianism in Isaiah – Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-9; Testament of Judah 24:1-6 (6:15)
- The Servant Songs: Who is the servant?
In this episode we look at the theme of redemption and restoration in the Book of Isaiah. The language of new heavens and new earth is uniquely Isaianic and captures the Jewish idea of the restoration of creation. However, this hope is understood in light of the covenant and the glorification of Jerusalem. The apocalyptic idea of the resurrection of the dead develops within this context and finds its epicenter on Mount Zion.
- The varying historical narratives about the future redemption (2:01)
- The geographical nature of the redemption: Isaiah 2:2-4; Isaiah 62:1, 6-7; Genesis 12:1-3 (4:37)
- A more universal vision of redemption and resurrection: Isaiah 25:7-8; Isaiah 26:19; 4 Ezra 7:30-34 (14:11)
- The scope of the redemption: Isaiah 65:17-19; 1 Enoch 45:4-5; 1 Enoch 91:15-17; Jubilees 1:29; 2 Peter 3; Revelation 21:1-2 (23:12)
In this episode we discuss how Isaiah is understood and pushed forward by later apocalyptic writers, Jesus, and the authors of the New Testament. Isaiah begins the written prophets in the Nevi’im, which revolve around the maintenance and projection of the covenant through divine judgment and redemption. The primary elements of Jewish apocalyptic thought (the day of the Lord, the resurrection of the dead, and the coming Messiah) are all heavily influenced by the Book of Isaiah. In this episode we focus on the theme of theophany and the day of the Lord.
- The prophets and German objective rationalism (2:01)
- Framing Isaiah in context to God’s covenant with Israel (6:16)
- Brief overview of Isaiah (10:31)
- A major apocalyptic theme of Isaiah: theophany and the Day of the Lord (14:29)
- The covenantal hardening in Isaiah 6 and the parables: Mark 4:11-12 (15:26)
- Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 2: Isaiah 2:11-12, 17-19; Matthew 23:12, 33; Revelation 6:15-17 (22:16)
- The importance of Isaiah 13 in the apocalyptic tradition: Isaiah 13:6, 9-13; Matthew 24:29 (27:31)
- Gehenna, Topheth, and Isaiah 30: Isaiah 30:30-33; Isaiah 34:2-4 (31:13)
- The Day of the Lord, the Gospel, and Isaiah 40: Isaiah 40:5, 9-10; Isaiah 52:7; Luke 3:3-6 (37:11)
- Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 63: Isaiah 63:1-5; 64:1-2; 66:15-16 (44:25)
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this sixth Q&A episode. Topics include enjoying life within an apocalyptic view of the world, the meaning of “ekklesia”, the messiah’s relationship to the day of the Lord, the parable of the wineskins, revivals within an apocalyptic view, and how to weed through various competing theological narratives.
- How does love and joy fit into the gospel? (2:12)
- What does ‘ekklesia’ mean if it doesn’t mean ‘church’? (13:54)
- How do first century Jews relate the Messiah and the Day of the Lord? (20:46)
- Do you believe in a dispensational or apocalyptic view of the temple in Ezekiel 40-48?
In this episode we give a brief overview of 1 and 2 Kings and focus on the unfolding and later projection of David’s dynasty. After the failure of the Davidic monarchy, Solomon is idealized and anticipated by the prophetic tradition, wisdom literature, and second-temple literature as the king who is filled with God’s wisdom and who leads the nation in righteousness and obedience. Rather than redefining or reimagining this expectation, the New Testament reinforces the hope for the restoration of David’s throne in Jerusalem.
- Overview of key events in 1 and 2 Kings (1:43)
- The height of Solomon’s reign: 1 Kings 4:32-34; 10 (4:07)
- Solomon’s failure and the anticipation of the idealized king: 1 Kings 11, Deuteronomy 17 (7:31)
- The idealized king and kingdom in the prophetic and apocalyptic literature: Micah 4:6-8, Testament of Dan 5:12-13, Amos 9:11-14; 2 Baruch 61:1-8; 72:2; 74:2-3 (10:26)
- The idealized king and kingdom in the wisdom literature: Psalm 72; Psalm 132:10-17; Psalms of Solomon 17:21-26; Isaiah 11:1-6, 32-37 (22:44)
In this episode we discuss 1 and 2 Samuel, and particularly the Davidic covenant in 2 Samuel 7, with an eye toward its forward projection in the Tanakh, second-temple literature, and the New Testament. God’s election of David’s family and the city of Jerusalem play out in subsequent prophetic and apocalyptic traditions. God’s faithfulness to David and his descendants become the crucible of his faithfulness to creation as a whole.
- A quick overview of the events of 1 and 2 Samuel (3:05)
- The Davidic Covenant: 2 Samuel 7 (6:02)
- The Davidic Covenant in the Writings and Prophets: Psalm 89:3-4, 20-29, 36-37; Psalm 2; Isaiah 9, 11, 16, 22, 55; Jeremiah 23:5, 33:20-21; Ezekiel 34, 37 (9:22)
- The “glorious throne” in Second Temple Literature: Ben Sira 47:11; 4 Ezra 12:31-34; 1 Enoch 45:3-5, 51:1-5 (26:58)
- The son of David and the Davidic throne in the New Testament: Matthew 19:28, 25:31, 1:1; Luke 1:32; Matthew 9:27-28; Mark 11:10 (36:13)
- Historical and modern distortions of David’s throne (47:36)