S4E3: The Parable of the Weeds
In this episode, we explore the parable of the wheat and the tares/weeds, the parable of the mustard seed, and the parable of the leaven. In light of common Jewish apocalyptic expectations, these parables all communicate a common theme of the flourishing of the wicked in this age and God’s patient response toward evil. Rather than positive parables speaking of the growth of a spiritualized kingdom, these parables are primarily negative in tone meant to indict pride and hypocrisy in light of the coming judgment.
- Reviewing the phrase “the kingdom of heaven” and the agricultural metaphor – Tg.
S4E2: The Parable of the Sower
In this episode, we examine Jesus’ parable of the sower found in Matthew 13:3-9. We begin by reviewing popular contemporary interpretations of the parables. As a feature particularly important to all of them, we delve into the Jewish tradition of using agricultural metaphors in communication, with a focus on second-temple literature’s emphasis on the sowing and reaping motif in discipleship. Within that historical context, we explore how this understanding provides deeper insight into the parable of the sower.
- How the parable of the sower is typically read within Christian circles (6:37)
- The agricultural metaphor in the Tanakh – Psalm 37:1-2; Psalm 72:16-17; Psalm 90:3-6; Psalm 92:6-8; Psalm 103:13-16; Isaiah 5:21-24; Isaiah 40:6-9; Isaiah 51:11-13; Ezekiel 17:1-10; Malachi 2:17, 3:1-4,16 (15:51)
- The agricultural metaphor in Jewish apocalyptic literature – 4 Ezra 4:26-32; 4 Ezra 8:38-45; 4 Ezra 9:26-37 (33:27)
- How the parable ought to be understood – Matthew 13:18-23; Daniel 2; Berakhot 55a; Avot 5:2 (44:38)
S4E1: Introduction to the Parables of Jesus – The Secrets of the Kingdom
In our opening episode for season 4 of our show, we introduce the parables of Jesus and discuss his intended audience and their purpose. Rather than a redefinition of Jewish eschatology or Jesus giving new, gnostic revelation, the parables are spoken to the calloused and are meant to evoke a moral response of repentance. Jesus’ parables are communicating the same ideas as Israel’s prophetic tradition, highlighting the need for covenant faithfulness in light of Israel’s assumed apocalyptic eschatology.
- Common confusion around the parables of Jesus (4:26)
- To whom did Jesus speak the parables? (11:07)
- Why did Jesus speak in parables?
Q&A #9 with Bill, John, and Josh
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this ninth Q&A episode. We discuss revival, the Trinity, and different hermeneutical tools that Christians have used over the centuries. We also explore how Paul uses the Hebrew Bible, and conclude with some thoughts on some common critiques on the historicity of the Tanakh.
- Does Matthew 24:14 describe an end-time revival or awakening? (2:13)
- What do you think about common medieval exegesis methods and how they relate to a first-century apocalyptic worldview? (5:03)
- Is Paul’s quote of Psalm 68 in Ephesians 4 proof of realized eschatology? (15:30)
- What are your thoughts on the Trinity from a first-century viewpoint?
S3E33: Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles: Priests and Kings at the End of the Age
In this final episode of the season, we discuss Ezra-Nehemiah, and 1-2 Chronicles and their later interpretation in second-temple apocalyptic literature. Being traditionally understood as the head of the Great Sanhedrin, Ezra in particular is transformed into an apocalyptic prophet proclaiming the urgency of the end of the age. The Chronicles largely summarize earlier content of 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings with an emphasis on messianism, which plays into eschatological expectations in the second-temple period.
- Overview of Ezra-Nehemiah (2:11)
- The confusion around Ezra in Second Temple Literature – 4 Ezra/2 Esdras (7:33)
- Ezra as an end-time prophet – Ezra 7:1,6; 4 Ezra 1:1; Ezra 3:10-13; Haggai 2:3; 2 Esdras 4 Ezra 3:28–36; 7:74; 14:3-18 (12:23)
- The apocalyptic material, propaganda, and discipleship (23:21)
- Overview of Chronicles (27:37)
- Messianism in 1 and 2 Chronicles – Psalms of Solomon 17 (31:35)
- Wrapping up our season on the Tanakh (38:17)
S3E32: The Book of Daniel and Jewish Apocalyptic Eschatology
In this episode, we discuss the book of Daniel and its influence on later Jewish apocalyptic literature and the New Testament. We highlight particular themes common to the apocalyptic worldview, including the kingdom of God, the son of Man, and the eschatological persecution of the saints. Daniel is best understood and read through the lens of God’s covenantal faithfulness to Israel and its projection forward in an apocalyptic view of history.
- Introduction to Daniel (3:04)
- Why is Daniel in the Ketuvim instead of the Nevi’im? (4:07)
- Dating the book of Daniel – Ezekiel 14:12-14; Ezekiel 14:19-20; Ezekiel 28:1-3 (7:52)
- Daniel as apocalyptic literature (14:47)
- Daniel, the covenant, and the apocalyptic view of history (16:14)
- The aim of history is the apocalyptic kingdom of God – Daniel 9 (17:24)
- Daniel in second temple apocalyptic literature – Syb.
S3E31: The Five Scrolls and Jewish Apocalypticism
In this episode, we discuss the Five Scrolls: Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. Though seemingly disparate in content, authorship, chronology, and genre, Jewish tradition groups these five books within the Ketuvim. We discuss some of the reasons why, and how later tradition reads these books messianically and eschatologically.
- The Five Scrolls and the Targums (2:43)
- Song of Solomon – Ezekiel 16:7-8; Isaiah 62:5; Hosea 1-2; Targum Canticles 8:4-8 (12:16)
- Ruth – Targum Ruth 1:1; 2:12; 4:22 (31:22)
- Lamentations – Targum Lamentations 1:1; 2:22; 4:22 (38:18)
- Ecclesiastes – Targum Qohelet 1:2; 12:13-14; 1 Enoch 102:6-103:4 (43:17)
- Esther – Targum Esther 1:1 (50:50)
Resource: Targum and Testament Revisited by Martin McNamara – https://amzn.to/3L6DGB4
S3E30: The Eschatological Metanarrative of the Psalms: An Interview with David Mitchell, part 2
In this episode we continue our interview with David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of the eschatological themes found in the Psalms and how these play out in the prophetic literature. We also look at the themes of the Psalms in apocalyptic literature, which give context to the New Testament’s quotations of the Psalms, especially Psalm 110.
- The central eschatological themes found in the Psalter (2:18)
- How do you see the Psalter’s effect on the late prophetic material or on the prophetic material in general? (7:59)
- How do you see these ideas projecting forward into 2nd temple/apocalyptic literature?
S3E29: The Eschatological Metanarrative of the Psalms: An Interview with David Mitchell, part 1
In this episode we interview David Mitchell, Biblical scholar and pastoral musician. We explore some of his work on the Psalms from his book The Message of the Psalter: An Eschatological Programme in the Book of Psalms. David discusses the primary theme of his book with us – namely, that the Psalms have been organized in a way that is intended to convey an eschatological narrative. David shares some of the other theories behind the organization of the Psalms, and then shares a few examples to help illustrate how both the content and the redaction of the Psalms were intended to heighten eschatological expectation. … Read more
S3E28: Introduction to the Ketuvim and the Wisdom Literature
In this episode we begin our discussion of the Ketuvim with the Wisdom tradition in the Tanakh. Along with the prophetic tradition, the wisdom tradition played a key role in the development of Jewish apocalypticism. Today we survey the Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, highlighting how they are incorporated into later apocalyptic themes such as the delineation of the righteous and the wicked at the final judgment, the resurrection of the dead, and messianic hope.
- What is the Wisdom tradition? (2:52)
- What does Wisdom literature have to do with Jewish apocalyptic? (8:18)
- The Psalms – Psalm 1; 2; 78; Targum Psalms 18:29; 27:13; Wisdom of Solomon 3, 5 (15:31)
- Proverbs – Proverbs 1:20-33; Daniel 1:17; Daniel 2:20-22, 31-45; 4 Ezra 4 (28:11)
- Job – Job 19; Job 42; Job 14:14 (LXX); Job 42:17 (LXX); James 5:11 (42:20)
** We had a little trouble with our recording this week.… Read more