S3E14: Numbers and Apocalyptic Typology

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In this episode we look at several themes in the book of Numbers that are pushed forward apocalyptically by second-temple literature and the New Testament. Many events in the Book of Numbers–for example, the manna, the snake on the pole, and the wanderings of Israel in the wilderness–are interpreted typologically within a Jewish apocalyptic framework. Though typology has been used throughout church history to change the Jewish hope, Jesus and the apostles simply assume an apocalyptic narrative when they speak of people and events from the Tanakh typologically.

Show notes

  • An overview of Numbers (1:58)
  • Manna in Numbers 11: 2 Baruch 29:5-30:2; Matthew 6; Psalm 78:25-28; 2 Corinthians 5:1-2; Midrash Rabbah on Eccl. 1:9; Mekilta on Exod. 16:25; Midrash Tanchuma, Beshallach 21:66 (4:18)
  • Understanding typology vs. allegory in the New Testament (13:59)
  • Origen, eschatology, and typology that sets up a new framework (15:49)
  • The rabbinic tradition and typology (22:15)
  • Typology with Justin, Trypho, and Augustine (25:09)
  • Manna in John 6: Jesus is the Bread of Life (30:40)
  • The snake on a pole in Numbers 21: John 3:14-17; Wisdom of Solomon 16:5–11 (37:27)
  • The wilderness wanderings of Numbers: Hosea 2; Ezekiel 20:33-35; 1 Corinthians 10:1-11 (47:16)