In this episode we discuss messianism in the book of Isaiah. In light of the day of the Lord and the coming restoration of creation, Isaiah portrays the Messiah as the head of Israel, who will redeem Israel and glorify Jerusalem. The Messiah functions as a servant of Israel who heals the nation and leads her to her glorious destiny. As Paul would put it, “I tell you that Messiah became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs” (Romans 15:8).
- What is messianism? (2:25)
- Messianism in Isaiah – Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-9; Testament of Judah 24:1-6 (6:15)
- The Servant Songs: Who is the servant?
In this episode we look at the theme of redemption and restoration in the Book of Isaiah. The language of new heavens and new earth is uniquely Isaianic and captures the Jewish idea of the restoration of creation. However, this hope is understood in light of the covenant and the glorification of Jerusalem. The apocalyptic idea of the resurrection of the dead develops within this context and finds its epicenter on Mount Zion.
- The varying historical narratives about the future redemption (2:01)
- The geographical nature of the redemption: Isaiah 2:2-4; Isaiah 62:1, 6-7; Genesis 12:1-3 (4:37)
- A more universal vision of redemption and resurrection: Isaiah 25:7-8; Isaiah 26:19; 4 Ezra 7:30-34 (14:11)
- The scope of the redemption: Isaiah 65:17-19; 1 Enoch 45:4-5; 1 Enoch 91:15-17; Jubilees 1:29; 2 Peter 3; Revelation 21:1-2 (23:12)
In this episode we discuss how Isaiah is understood and pushed forward by later apocalyptic writers, Jesus, and the authors of the New Testament. Isaiah begins the written prophets in the Nevi’im, which revolve around the maintenance and projection of the covenant through divine judgment and redemption. The primary elements of Jewish apocalyptic thought (the day of the Lord, the resurrection of the dead, and the coming Messiah) are all heavily influenced by the Book of Isaiah. In this episode we focus on the theme of theophany and the day of the Lord.
- The prophets and German objective rationalism (2:01)
- Framing Isaiah in context to God’s covenant with Israel (6:16)
- Brief overview of Isaiah (10:31)
- A major apocalyptic theme of Isaiah: theophany and the Day of the Lord (14:29)
- The covenantal hardening in Isaiah 6 and the parables: Mark 4:11-12 (15:26)
- Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 2: Isaiah 2:11-12, 17-19; Matthew 23:12, 33; Revelation 6:15-17 (22:16)
- The importance of Isaiah 13 in the apocalyptic tradition: Isaiah 13:6, 9-13; Matthew 24:29 (27:31)
- Gehenna, Topheth, and Isaiah 30: Isaiah 30:30-33; Isaiah 34:2-4 (31:13)
- The Day of the Lord, the Gospel, and Isaiah 40: Isaiah 40:5, 9-10; Isaiah 52:7; Luke 3:3-6 (37:11)
- Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 63: Isaiah 63:1-5; 64:1-2; 66:15-16 (44:25)
Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this sixth Q&A episode. Topics include enjoying life within an apocalyptic view of the world, the meaning of “ekklesia”, the messiah’s relationship to the day of the Lord, the parable of the wineskins, revivals within an apocalyptic view, and how to weed through various competing theological narratives.
- How does love and joy fit into the gospel? (2:12)
- What does ‘ekklesia’ mean if it doesn’t mean ‘church’? (13:54)
- How do first century Jews relate the Messiah and the Day of the Lord? (20:46)
- Do you believe in a dispensational or apocalyptic view of the temple in Ezekiel 40-48?
In this episode we give a brief overview of 1 and 2 Kings and focus on the unfolding and later projection of David’s dynasty. After the failure of the Davidic monarchy, Solomon is idealized and anticipated by the prophetic tradition, wisdom literature, and second-temple literature as the king who is filled with God’s wisdom and who leads the nation in righteousness and obedience. Rather than redefining or reimagining this expectation, the New Testament reinforces the hope for the restoration of David’s throne in Jerusalem.
- Overview of key events in 1 and 2 Kings (1:43)
- The height of Solomon’s reign: 1 Kings 4:32-34; 10 (4:07)
- Solomon’s failure and the anticipation of the idealized king: 1 Kings 11, Deuteronomy 17 (7:31)
- The idealized king and kingdom in the prophetic and apocalyptic literature: Micah 4:6-8, Testament of Dan 5:12-13, Amos 9:11-14; 2 Baruch 61:1-8; 72:2; 74:2-3 (10:26)
- The idealized king and kingdom in the wisdom literature: Psalm 72; Psalm 132:10-17; Psalms of Solomon 17:21-26; Isaiah 11:1-6, 32-37 (22:44)
In this episode we discuss 1 and 2 Samuel, and particularly the Davidic covenant in 2 Samuel 7, with an eye toward its forward projection in the Tanakh, second-temple literature, and the New Testament. God’s election of David’s family and the city of Jerusalem play out in subsequent prophetic and apocalyptic traditions. God’s faithfulness to David and his descendants become the crucible of his faithfulness to creation as a whole.
- A quick overview of the events of 1 and 2 Samuel (3:05)
- The Davidic Covenant: 2 Samuel 7 (6:02)
- The Davidic Covenant in the Writings and Prophets: Psalm 89:3-4, 20-29, 36-37; Psalm 2; Isaiah 9, 11, 16, 22, 55; Jeremiah 23:5, 33:20-21; Ezekiel 34, 37 (9:22)
- The “glorious throne” in Second Temple Literature: Ben Sira 47:11; 4 Ezra 12:31-34; 1 Enoch 45:3-5, 51:1-5 (26:58)
- The son of David and the Davidic throne in the New Testament: Matthew 19:28, 25:31, 1:1; Luke 1:32; Matthew 9:27-28; Mark 11:10 (36:13)
- Historical and modern distortions of David’s throne (47:36)
In this episode we discuss the books of Joshua and Judges and how they are understood in second-temple apocalyptic literature. Though not often talked about, when they are referenced, they are assimilated into the later apocalyptic tradition. The lack of references is also discussed in light of apocalypticism downplaying synergism and human involvement in ultimate salvation. Similarly, the rise of the martyrdom tradition in second-temple Judaism coincides with the development of apocalyptic hopes.
- Why are Joshua and Judges placed with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible? (4:23)
- Joshua and Judges in Jewish apocalyptic literature: 2 Baruch 53-74; 59:1-2; 60:1-2; 1 Enoch 85-90; 89:39-42; Acts 7; 13 (7:03)
- The elephant in the room: divine sanctioning of warfare and the killing of God’s enemies (14:55)
- The apocalyptic tradition minimizes synergism and human partnership with God in bringing the redemption: Isaiah 63:1-6; Zechariah 14:2-3; Daniel 2:44-45; Deuteronomy 32:36; Daniel 12:7 (18:51)
- Martyrdom in the apocalyptic tradition: Daniel 7; 2 Maccabees 6-7 (32:27)
- Martyrdom, Jesus, and the apostles: Matthew 16; Luke 9; Revelation 7 (36:59)
In this episode we look more deeply at Deuteronomy and highlight how the Covenant and the Law are projected into the future both within the book of Deuteronomy as well as by later Jewish writers. Deuteronomy describes a cycle of covenant breaking, exile, repentance, and return that later becomes the foundation for Jewish eschatological conviction. This cycle thus becomes the engine of the apocalyptic hermeneutic in the second-temple period and in the New Testament.
- Projecting the covenant and the law into Israel’s future – Daniel 9:11-13; 2 Maccabees 6:12–16 (1:40)
- The “covenantal cycle” of transgression, exile, repentance, return – Jeremiah 1:1, 11-12; 2 Kings 22:8; Ezekiel 1:1-3 (12:44)
- The cycle will not go on forever – Deuteronomy 4:30-31, 30:1-6, 6:6, 10:16; Jubilees 1:21-22 (19:26)
- Apocalyptic eschatology is built on the assumption of God’s faithfulness to the covenant – 4 Ezra 5:23-29; 4 Ezra 6:18-20 (27:14)
- The New Testament and the covenantal projection – Romans 9-11; Romans 11:11-16; Deuteronomy 32:18–21 (37:00)
In this episode, we give a brief overview of the book of Deuteronomy. We discuss some of the major themes of covenant, law, and land as we survey the book chapter by chapter. The book of Deuteronomy is often neglected in Christian tradition, but it was foundational for the oracles of the prophets and later the teachings of Jesus and the apostles.
- Why an overview of Deuteronomy? (2:39)
- Deuteronomy 1-3: A review to reframe history toward a particular conclusion (4:36)
- Deuteronomy 4: Covenant, Law, and Land projected into the future (10:08)
- Deuteronomy 5: The Decalogue, Shabbat (17:00)
- Deuteronomy 6: The Shema (19:40)
- Deuteronomy 7: Israel’s election (22:46)
- Deuteronomy 8-11: Remembrance of God and his righteousness (24:44)
- Deuteronomy 12-26: Legal matters, kings and prophets, and how the Law is often misunderstood (33:02)
- Deuteronomy 27-28: Mount Ebal blessings and curses (45:39)
- Deuteronomy 29-30: Covenant renewal and future restoration (48:25)
- Deuteronomy 30: Joshua commissioned (51:10)
- Deuteronomy 31-34: Song of Moses, the final blessing, and Moses’ death (52:09)
In this episode we look at several themes in the book of Numbers that are pushed forward apocalyptically by second-temple literature and the New Testament. Many events in the Book of Numbers–for example, the manna, the snake on the pole, and the wanderings of Israel in the wilderness–are interpreted typologically within a Jewish apocalyptic framework. Though typology has been used throughout church history to change the Jewish hope, Jesus and the apostles simply assume an apocalyptic narrative when they speak of people and events from the Tanakh typologically.
- An overview of Numbers (1:58)
- Manna in Numbers 11: 2 Baruch 29:5-30:2; Matthew 6; Psalm 78:25-28; 2 Corinthians 5:1-2; Midrash Rabbah on Eccl.