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  • Q&A #8 with Bill, John, and Josh


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    Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this eighth Q&A episode. Topics include the relationship of apocalypticism to pacifism and fatalism, Messianic Judaism, and the importance of historical studies. Also, don’t miss our rapid fire round (which, as usual, is not so rapid).

    Show notes:

    • Can you comment on what “salt and light” and “city on a hill” meant for a first-century Jew? (2:10)
    • How do historical studies fit into the larger trajectory of theological development? (9:12)
    • Why do some scholars believe there were different versions of “Christian Judaism” in the first century? (18:06)
    • Is there time in the age to come?
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  • S3E27: Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi: Covenant Faithfulness and the Hope of Israel


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    In this episode we finish our discussion of the Minor Prophets with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. We discuss the various themes found in each book and the role that these post-exilic prophets play in the development of apocalyptic thought. Generally written around the building of the second temple, the authors consistently use apocalyptic scenarios to motivate Israel’s covenant faithfulness in the stewardship of their election.

    Show notes

    • The return from exile played no small role in the “apocalypticization” of exile/repentance/return themes (2:02)
    • Haggai: Neglecting the temple, the covenantal blessings and curses, and Zerubbabel – Haggai 1:10-11; Deuteronomy 28:22-40; Haggai 2:1-9; Deuteronomy 30; Haggai 2:6-9; Hebrews 12:28-29 (5:55)
    • Zechariah: Covenant maintenance “apocalpyticized” through visions and oracles – Zechariah 1:1-6; 4:8; 6:11-13; 7:8-14; 8:2-3; 9:10; 12-14 (17:27)
    • Zechariah quoted in the New Testament – Zechariah 9:9; Revelation (29:24)
    • Malachi: the fame of the Lord among the nations, disillusionment, and the coming judgment – Malachi 1:11; 2:17; 4:1; 1 Corinthians 3; Matthew 3 (37:22)

  • S3E26: The Pre-Exilic Prophets and the Projection of the Covenant


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    In this episode we discuss the minor prophetic books of Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. As we’ve seen already in the other prophetic books from Isaiah to Amos, the themes of covenant discipline in light of eschatological hope are highlighted repeatedly throughout. Each book has its own particular emphasis and angle, but the covenantal cycle from Deuteronomy 28-30 is always presumed, and this cycle is pushed to its ultimate end by later apocalyptic writers and the authors of the New Testament.

    Show notes

    • Obadiah – Obadiah 15-18; Zechariah 12-14 (3:57)
    • Jonah – Jonah 4:1-3; Matthew 12:38-41; Acts 10 (12:08)
    • Micah – Micah 3:5-8; Micah 6:1-2; Micah 4:1-5; Micah 5:2-4; Micah 7:18-20 (24:58)
    • Nahum – Nahum 1:7-8, 15; Nahum 3:19; Tobit 14:3-4 (34:29)
    • Habakkuk – Habakkuk 2:2-4; Hebrews 8; Habakkuk 3:11-13 (41:12)
    • Zephaniah – Isaiah 13; 2 Maccabees 6:13-16; Zephaniah 3:19-20 (52:10)

  • S3E25: Hosea, Joel, and Amos: Idolatry, Injustice, and the Day of the Lord


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    In this episode we begin our discussion of the Minor Prophets with the books of Hosea, Joel, and Amos. As with the other written prophets, “the Book of the Twelve” highlights the themes of covenantal maintenance, eschatological distress, and ultimate restoration for Israel. Hosea’s marriage imagery, Joel’s emphasis on the day of the Lord, and Amos’ concern for injustices are all framed within the common covenantal narrative.

    Show notes

    • Intro to the Minor Prophets and Israel’s covenant dynamic – Amos 4; Deuteronomy 28; 1 Enoch 89:51-53; 2 Baruch 62 (2:35)
    • Hosea: idolatry and the marriage metaphor – Hosea 3; Ezekiel 20; Jeremiah 30-32; 4Q434; Hosea 6:4-11 (11:21)
    • Joel: the covenantal dynamic in an apocalyptic context – Joel 2:30-3:2 (23:24)
    • Amos: idolatry, hypocrisy, and injustice – Amos 7:10-17; Amos 5:18-20; Amos 9:8-11 (37:37)

  • Q&A #7 with Bill, John, and Josh


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    Bill, John, and Josh tackle your questions in this seventh Q&A episode.  Topics include Gentiles and the Torah, scholars like Albert Schweitzer and C.H. Dodd, John 3 and Ezekiel 36, and God’s promises. We also give some practical advice about how to relate to others who see the Gospel differently. 

    Show notes:

    • What is the purpose of the Law for ancient Jews and according to the New Testament? (2:24)
    • What are your thoughts on Albert Schweitzer? (14:04)
    • Can you discuss more of the connection between John 3 and Ezekiel 36 more? (21:14)
    • How does the Jewish apocalyptic framework for the Gospel frame the cross?
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  • S3E24: Heavenly Visions and Eschatological Revelation in the Book of Ezekiel


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    In this episode we discuss the book of Ezekiel and its later interpretation in apocalyptic literature and the New Testament. Just as with the other written prophets, Ezekiel continues the theme of covenantal maintenance, using Israel’s history as a mechanism to describe their future eschatological exile and redemption. Several features in Ezekiel become important to the later apocalyptic writers, including heavenly visions, eschatological imagery, and the way in which these serve to communicate the certainty of God’s covenantal promises. 

    Show notes

    • A brief overview of Ezekiel (1:32)
    • The centrality of the covenantal dynamic – Ezekiel 1:1-2; Tg. Ezek.
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  • S3E23: Jeremiah, the Covenantal Cycle, and the Baruch Tradition


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    In this episode we discuss the book of Jeremiah and the playing out of the covenantal cycle as developed in Deuteronomy. Various passages illustrate this cycle, but chapter 25 particularly sets the pattern of covenantal determinism which is developed in the apocalyptic literature. A unique example of the forward projection of Jeremiah’s covenantal cycle is also seen in the Baruch tradition.

    Show notes

    • Brief overview of Jeremiah (3:18)
    • Covenantal maintenance in Jeremiah – Jeremiah 2:1-3, 23-24, 26-27; 3:12-18; Jeremiah 16:9-15; Jeremiah 23:1-8; Jeremiah 30:1-18 (5:18)
    • Covenantal determinism in Jeremiah and Jewish apocalyptic literature – Jeremiah 25:11-13; 4 Ezra 12-13 (19:46)
    • Chronology and numerology in context to the covenant (25:43)
    • The New Covenant – Jeremiah 31:31-34; Deuteronomy 30:1-6; 1 Baruch 2:31-35 (32:04)
    • The apocalypticizing of Jeremiah – 2 Baruch 10:2-5 (39:01)

  • S3E22: Isaiah, Messianism, and the Servant Songs


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    In this episode we discuss messianism in the book of Isaiah. In light of the day of the Lord and the coming restoration of creation, Isaiah portrays the Messiah as the head of Israel, who will redeem Israel and glorify Jerusalem. The Messiah functions as a servant of Israel who heals the nation and leads her to her glorious destiny. As Paul would put it, “I tell you that Messiah became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs” (Romans 15:8).

    Show notes

    • What is messianism? (2:25)
    • Messianism in Isaiah – Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-9; Testament of Judah 24:1-6 (6:15)
    • The Servant Songs: Who is the servant?
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  • S3E21: Isaiah, Redemption, and the New Creation


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    In this episode we look at the theme of redemption and restoration in the Book of Isaiah. The language of new heavens and new earth is uniquely Isaianic and captures the Jewish idea of the restoration of creation. However, this hope is understood in light of the covenant and the glorification of Jerusalem. The apocalyptic idea of the resurrection of the dead develops within this context and finds its epicenter on Mount Zion.

    Show notes

    • The varying historical narratives about the future redemption (2:01)
    • The geographical nature of the redemption: Isaiah 2:2-4; Isaiah 62:1, 6-7; Genesis 12:1-3 (4:37)
    • A more universal vision of redemption and resurrection: Isaiah 25:7-8; Isaiah 26:19; 4 Ezra 7:30-34 (14:11)
    • The scope of the redemption: Isaiah 65:17-19; 1 Enoch 45:4-5; 1 Enoch 91:15-17; Jubilees 1:29; 2 Peter 3; Revelation 21:1-2 (23:12)

  • S3E20: Isaiah, Theophany, and the Day of the Lord


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    In this episode we discuss how Isaiah is understood and pushed forward by later apocalyptic writers, Jesus, and the authors of the New Testament. Isaiah begins the written prophets in the Nevi’im, which revolve around the maintenance and projection of the covenant through divine judgment and redemption. The primary elements of Jewish apocalyptic thought (the day of the Lord, the resurrection of the dead, and the coming Messiah) are all heavily influenced by the Book of Isaiah. In this episode we focus on the theme of theophany and the day of the Lord.

    Show notes

    • The prophets and German objective rationalism (2:01)
    • Framing Isaiah in context to God’s covenant with Israel (6:16)
    • Brief overview of Isaiah (10:31)
    • A major apocalyptic theme of Isaiah: theophany and the Day of the Lord (14:29)
    • The covenantal hardening in Isaiah 6 and the parables: Mark 4:11-12 (15:26)
    • Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 2: Isaiah 2:11-12, 17-19; Matthew 23:12, 33; Revelation 6:15-17 (22:16)
    • The importance of Isaiah 13 in the apocalyptic tradition: Isaiah 13:6, 9-13; Matthew 24:29 (27:31)
    • Gehenna, Topheth, and Isaiah 30: Isaiah 30:30-33; Isaiah 34:2-4 (31:13)
    • The Day of the Lord, the Gospel, and Isaiah 40: Isaiah 40:5, 9-10; Isaiah 52:7; Luke 3:3-6 (37:11)
    • Redemption by the Lord alone in Isaiah 63: Isaiah 63:1-5; 64:1-2; 66:15-16 (44:25)